What is a T Score in Bone Density?

What is a Bone Density Test?

A bone density test is a non-invasive and painless procedure used to measure the number of minerals, such as calcium, in your bones. The most commonly used and versatile test is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This test can diagnose osteoporosis before any bone fractures occur, predict the likelihood of future fractures, and monitor the effectiveness of osteoporosis treatments.

The DXA test is a quick and simple procedure that usually takes minutes. During the test, you will lie down on a DXA table and follow the instructions of a highly-trained technologist to ensure that you are positioned correctly. A movable arm will pass over you to scan your bones. Although the test is simple, the scan and computer system technology is highly sophisticated.

Interpreting the DXA test results requires a qualified person with specialized training. To ensure that the test is performed and interpreted correctly, it is recommended to choose a facility that employs staff who is certified by a reputable organization, such as the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD). Additionally, the DXA test exposes you to very little radiation, far less than what you would be exposed to during a long-distance airplane flight.

What is a t score in bone density?

In bone density testing, a T-score is a statistical measure used to compare a person’s bone density to that of a healthy young adult of the same sex. The T-score is calculated by comparing the measured bone density to the average peak bone density of a healthy 30-year-old adult of the same sex.

A T-score of -1.0 or above is considered normal bone density. A T-score between -1.0 and -2.5 indicates low bone density or osteopenia. A T-score of -2.5 or below indicates osteoporosis, a very low bone density condition that increases the risk of fractures. Bone density testing is often used to evaluate the risk of fracture and to monitor the effects of treatments for osteoporosis. The T-score is one of several factors that doctors consider when making treatment decisions.

Who should get bone density testing?

Bone density testing is recommended for individuals with an increased risk of developing osteoporosis or who have already experienced a bone fracture. The following individuals should consider getting bone density testing:

  • Women who have gone through menopause, especially those over 65 years old.
  • Men over 70 years old.
  • Individuals who have experienced a bone fracture from a minor fall or injury.
  • Individuals who have a family history of osteoporosis or bone fractures.
  • Individuals who have low body weight or a small body frame.
  • Individuals who have taken medications known to cause bone loss, such as corticosteroids.
  • Individuals who have medical conditions that can cause bone loss, such as hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, or chronic kidney disease.
  • Individuals who smoke or consume excessive amounts of alcohol.


Bone density testing is a medical procedure that measures the number of minerals, such as calcium, in a person’s bones. The test is performed using a variety of imaging techniques, with the most common being dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone density testing is important for several reasons:

Diagnosis of osteoporosis:

 A bone density test is used to diagnose osteoporosis, a condition that causes bones to become weak and brittle, making them more likely to fracture.

Prediction of fracture risk:

 Bone density testing can help predict a person’s risk of future fractures. People with low bone density are more likely to experience fractures, especially in the hip, spine, and wrist.

Monitoring treatment effectiveness:

 For people with osteoporosis or low bone density, bone density testing can help monitor the effectiveness of treatment over time. Changes in bone density can be used to adjust treatment plans as needed.

Identification of high-risk individuals: 

Bone density testing can identify individuals at high risk for osteoporosis and fractures, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures.


Q1: What is the fastest way to increase bone density?

A: Engaging in weight-bearing exercises effectively promotes bone strength and slows down bone loss. These exercises involve walking, jogging, and climbing stairs, which exert pressure on your bones and stimulate them to become stronger.

Q2: Why is the t score important?

A: The T-score is a crucial measurement for identifying individuals at high risk of fracture before they experience one. A T-score between +1 and -1 is considered normal. A T-score between -1 and -2.5 is indicative of low bone mass. Osteoporosis, on the other hand, is defined as a T-score of -2.5 or lower. The World Health Organization provides a range of T-scores to help diagnose bone health conditions.

Q3: What is a bad t score?

A: Osteoporosis is a condition defined by the World Health Organization as a T-score that is 2.5 or more standard deviations below the mean or 25% lower than the average bone density of a healthy 30-year-old. This condition can lead to weakened bones, an increased risk of fractures, and decreased quality of life. Some individuals may have low bone density, which is sometimes referred to as osteopenia.


The T-score is a measurement of bone density that helps diagnose osteoporosis and assess the fracture risk. A T-score of -2.5 or lower indicates osteoporosis, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates low bone mass. It is important to undergo bone density testing, particularly for women after menopause and individuals with risk factors for fracture, to identify those at the highest risk before they experience a fracture. A bone density test is a simple and non-invasive procedure that only takes a few minutes to complete and is an important tool in preventing and managing osteoporosis. Weight-bearing exercises and lifestyle modifications can help build strong bones and slow bone loss.

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